Rooibos的毒性

所念皆山海 2021-08-16 02:01:38 阅读数:492

本文一共[544]字,预计阅读时长:1分钟~
rooibos 毒性

下面的內容來自[1]

Pregnancy

Pregnant women can enjoy rooibos tea as it is high in beneficial compounds and caffeine-free. Caffeine intake during pregnancy is discouraged byw many health professionals [55].

However, if you are pregnant, always talk to your doctor before introducing new foods and supplements to your diet.

Liver Toxicity

According to two reported cases, drinking rooibos might be toxic to the liver.

A woman who consumed 1L of rooibos tea for 10 days had symptoms of liver toxicity: elevated liver enzymes (ALTGGT, and ASP) and fatty liver [56].(喝了rooibos引發脂肪肝。。。我覺得這個不太可能,這個women的例子,在參考文獻的[8]中有詳細論述)

When a man drank an herbal tea mixture(草茶混合物) of rooibos and buchu, he developed signs of acute hepatitis and liver failure(急性肝炎與肝衰竭). He recovered once he stopped drinking the tea [57].(不要和其他灌木混合引用,這個案例來自本文參考文獻中的[6])

It’s hard to make conclusions based on individual case reports, but caution is warranted.

Bacterial Contamination(細菌污染)

During processing, rooibos tea may get contaminated with bacteria like salmonella [58].

Salmonella is one of the leading causes of food poisoning and causes symptoms like fever, stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting [59].

If you are looking to purchase rooibos tea, it is important to choose a safe and reliable source.

Estrogen Effects(雌激素效應)

Red rooibos tea contains phytoestrogens (isovitexin, luteolin-7-glucoside, and nothofagin). These are natural compounds that mimic the female sex hormone estrogen [60].

That said, red rooibos tea contains miniscule amounts of phytoestrogens and no hormonal side effects have been reported.

Drug Interactions

Due to its ability to lower blood sugar, cholesterol levels, and blood pressure, rooibos tea might interact with the following drugs [61]:

  • Antidiabetics: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), sulfonylureas
  • Cholesterol-lowering (statin): atorvastatin
  • Blood pressure: ACE inhibitors

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下面的內容來自[2]

 histological regression of steatosis and cirrhosis in the liver tissue with a significant inhibition of the increase of liver tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde, triacylglycerols and cholesterol. Simultaneously, rooibos tea significantly suppressed mainly the increase in plasma activities of aminotransferases (ALT, AST)

意思是具備抑制肝硬化的能力。

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下面內容來自[3]

Rooibos Tea Side Effects

The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center reports that rooibos may cause liver damage. An October 2013 case study published in the ACG Case Reports Journal provides an account of liver toxicity associated with rooibos tea(和rooibos相關的肝毒性,本文參考文獻中的[6]) The authors wrote that although liver toxicity has rarely been reported, a South African doctor provided anecdotal evidence that the problem has occurred.

Drinking large amounts of the tea may also harm the kidneys. Prolonged intake may produce small changes in the reproductive system and adversely affect fertility, adds the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.(大量喝茶也可能損害腎髒。斯隆·凱特林癌症紀念中心補充道,長期攝入可能會對生殖系統產生微小變化,並對生育能力產生不利影響。)

What about the association between rooibos tea and estrogen? Some compounds found in rooibos tea have actions that mimic the hormone estrogen. For this reason, people with hormone-related cancers, such as breast cancer, should be cautious about drinking the tea, states the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.(雌激素相關的癌症例如乳腺癌不應該飲用)

Rooibos tea's antioxidant effects are beneficial for most people, but not for those undergoing chemotherapy. The antioxidants might reduce the effectiveness of certain drugs in this category.

(抗氧化劑可能會降低癌症用藥的療效)

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下面內容來自[4]

One of the dangerous Rooibos tea side effects will happen in human’s respiratory system. The symptoms of these problems are swollen chest, pain on the chest, difficulty in breathing, short breath, and tight chest. Normally, tea doesn’t bring such dangerous threats to human’s health if consumed in large amount, but Rooibos leaves are the one cause these problems.(可能導致呼吸急促、胸悶)

If you have asthma, it is better not to try drinking this tea. The fact is that Rooibos tea triggers allergic reaction and if you have asthma yet you drink this tea, then your asthma may relapse. But if you have an illness and the doctor suggest you to drink this tea then you should discuss it with the doctor.(如果有哮喘,不要喝這種茶,可能會引發過敏)

Risk of Deveolping Hepatotoxcity

Drinking Rooibos tea may increase the risk of developed Hepatotoxcity. Do you know what Hepatotoxcity is? Well, it is a substance that increases enzymes in human’s liver that can damage the liver itself. There was a report made by the European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology which said that one of Rooibos tea side effects is risk in developing Hepatotoxcity in the liver.

You surely don’t want this to happen to you, do you? So next time when you are suggested to drink this tea; make sure that you have discussed this issue with your doctor to prevent damaged liver.

筆記:

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology有文章 報道過肝損傷,這篇文章經過確認,就是[8],因為https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00228-009-0776-7顯示這篇文章發錶在

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology volume

You surely don’t want this to happen to you, do you? So next time when you are suggested to drink this tea; make sure that you have discussed this issue with your doctor to prevent damaged liver.(孕期不要喝,可能導致被胚胎中的孩子直接吸收)

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下面內容來自[5]

4. There Is Potential for Hepatotoxicity

A report was made in 2010 about a patient who developed hepatotoxicity after drinking rooibos.  The condition involves the increase of some liver enzymes that damage its internal structure. Although the report did not involve enough research, it is advisable to avoid consuming too much rooibos tea. In case you have a liver condition or you are on some medication, seek your doctor’s advice before taking rooibos tea.(2010年的報道提示肝毒性,該篇報道來自本文參考文獻中的[8])

8. May Be Toxic, Especially the Freshly Picked Leaves

While commercially available rooibos teas go through the necessary certification, raw teas may have bacteria or salmonella contamination. Be cautious and choose rooibos tea from high quality and clean sources.

The kidney filters body fluids and is therefore involved in the processing of teas, including rooibos tea. It is worth to note that teas generally exert some strain on the kidneys. If you have kidney disease or similar conditions, it makes sense for you to avoid or limit consumption of rooibos and other teas. You should also discuss consumption of tea with your doctor.(茶水會對腎髒施加壓力)

While the tea does not contain caffeine or tannin, rooibos tea side effects may overshadow its benefits. Caution is advised in drinking rooibos beverages. It is better to stick with regular and green teas which have been better studied than to experiment with this tea that could lead to emergencies for those allergic to it.(推薦優先引用被充分研究過的綠茶,而不是rooibos)

If you choose to take rooibos, limit your consumption to one cup prepared from 750 mg of the leaves. This optimal dosage should be taken with meals once or twice in a day. Taking more than this may lead to side effects.(每天一到兩杯,每杯不要超過750mg)

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下面內容來自[6]

buchu和rooibos混合飲用導致肝毒性,

這篇學術文獻最終顯示是buchu的pennyroyal油具有肝毒性。

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下面內容來自[7]

茶多酚是否影響吸收
蔬菜中的鐵
血紅素鐵

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下面內容來自[8]

 這個病人患有的疾病和使用的藥物:

疾病 藥物
low-grade B-cell malignancy(低度惡性B細胞淋巴)

rituximab (Mabthera) 3個月/次

Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia(瓦爾登斯特羅姆巨球蛋白血症) prednisolone 5 mg/天

prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
and toxoplasmosi

(吉羅維肺孢子蟲肺炎

弓形蟲病)

 co-trimoxazole
osteoporosis(骨質酥松) alendronic acid and calcium carbonate with vitamin D as
prophylaxis
每天補充  potassium chloride

該案例是在病人同時服用6種藥物的前提下,服用rooibos,導致轉氨酶水平昇高。

停用rooibos後,配合藥物,轉氨酶水平恢複正常。

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最終結論:

一天兩杯,每杯rooibos不要超過750mg

不要和其他藥物混合飲用,否則會導致肝毒性

Reference:

[1]5 Rooibos Tea Benefits + Side Effects & How to Use(提到的rooibos肝毒性文章為[8]和[6])

[2]Hepatoprotective effect of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats(2003年學術文獻,rooibos對肝髒的保護作用)

[3]Risks and Side Effects of Rooibos Tea(提到的rooibos肝毒性文章為[6])

[4]The Danger of Rooibos Tea Side Effects

[5]9 Common Side Effects of Rooibos Tea You Should Know(提到的rooibos肝毒性文章為[8])

[6]Tea not Tincture: Hepatotoxicity Associated with Rooibos Herbal Tea(2013年學術文獻)

[7]喝茶會不會影響對鈣、鐵的吸收?

[8]Possible hepatotoxic effect of rooibos tea: a case report(2011年學術文獻,某些數據庫顯示為2010年)

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